Dr. Charles Simonyi is the Father of Modern Microsoft Excel                                           JavaScript was originally developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape under the name Mocha, later LiveScript, and finally renamed to JavaScript.                                           The word "Biology" is firstly used by Lamarck and Treviranus                                           Hippocrates (460-370 bc) is known as father of medicine.                                           Galene, 130-200 is known as father of Experimental Physology                                           Aristotle (384-322 BC) is known as Father of Zoology because he wrote the construction and behavior of different animals in his book "Historia animalium"                                           Theophrastus(370-285 BC) is known as father of Botany because he wrote about 500 different plants in his book "Historia Plantarum".                                           John Resig is known as Father of Jquery -                                          HTML is a markup language which is use to design web pages. It was invented in 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee.                                                                The Google was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin.                                                                Rasmus Lerdorf was the original creator of PHP. It was first released in 1995.                                                               Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg                                                               Bjarne Stroustrup, creator of C++.                                                                Dennis Ritchie creator of C                                                                                                                              James Gosling, also known as the "Father of Java"                                          At 11.44%, Bihar is India's fastest growing state                                          Father of HTML -Tim Berners Lee                                          orkut was created by Orkut Büyükkökten, a Turkish software engineer                    Photoshop: It came about after Thomas Knoll, a PhD student at the University of Michigan created a program to display grayscale images on a monochrome monitor which at the time was called 'Display'.

Flash Actionscript Programming Basics

There are currently 2 versions of Actionscript. Actionscript 1.0 (AS 1.0) is the version that works with Flash MX. Actionscript 2.0 (AS 2.0) is the new language that ships with Flash MX2004. Most items in these tutorials will cover both AS 1 and AS 2. Where there is a difference I will indicate it. Actionscript 1.0 will work with Flash MX2004 but Actionscript 2.0 will not work with Flash MX.

To enter actionscript code, open the Actions window by hitting the F9 key or selecting menu item "Window" - "Actions", and start writing in that window.
Start Now!
Open the Actions window and type in this code:
var myNumber;
What you have done is a simple VARIABLE DECLARATION. You have reserved space in memory where some information/data is to be stored.
Now write this in place of above.:
var myNumber = 10;
You have assigned a value to the variable. i.e. stored the value 10 in the variable myNumber.
The trace( ) function prints whatever is between the parentheses to the output window. It displays the value of the argument of trace. To sequence text and variables in a trace function use "+" to add text to number and variables etc.
trace("some Text " + someVariable);
So, here is our complete script,
var myNumber = 10;
trace("The value is " + myNumber);
Now execute or run the script. To execute a script hit the keys "Control + Enter" together, or use menu item "Control" - " Test Movie".
After a script is written, the next step is to compile it. Compiling means to write to bytecode that Flash understands. The compiler has 2 jobs:
  1. error checking - the compiler will examine the script for language correctness or errors.
  2. Translate what we have to instructions that the machine can understand.


A Statement is an expression terminated by a semi-colon (";"). A statement in AS is similar to a sentence in the English language. E.g.
var score;
score = 80;
Lets analyse the above script
  1. is a declaration statement. It tells the machine "we exist"
  2. Assignment(=) statement. Assigns the value 80 to the computer memory space associated with the variable "score". Here we have initialised score. We have given it an initial value.
  3. - prints the value of score to the output window.
Do it now and hit Control+Enter.
Different values can be placed in the boxes for each name. The name is called a variable. It can be created or thrown away at any time. When you declare a variable, you set up a space in memory for it and also leave a space (connected with it) for a variable's value.(8, 16, "Frodo", whatever).
What we have used so far as variables has been numbers. There are a number of variable types (called datatypes) The main datatypes are Numbers (35), Strings ("a bunch of text") and Boolean (true or false).
Lets do another example. Write this in the actions window:
var string1 = "This is a test";
What did you get in the output window? Try another:
var isTrue = true;


Comments are helpful lines that are not compiled.
  • They help readers understand our program,
  • summarize a function's algorithm,
  • identify the purpose of a variable, or
  • clarify a segment of code.
There are two types.
  1. Multiple Lines ( /* */ )
    An explanation of a section of code or
     a coder's name and date
    and other stuff
  2. Single Line delimiters (//)
    // number of record
    var recordNum ;


Operators are signs that do something to variables on either side of them. Here are the arithmetic operators:
*MultiplicationX* Y
%ModulusX % Y
+AdditionX + Y
-SubtractionX - Y
The Modulus operator(%) computes the remainder of division between 2 integers.
e.g. 5 % 2 = 1
5/2 = (2*2) + 1(remainder)
Try it out! Ex1.
var x = 3;
 var y = 5;
 var mult1 =  x * y;
 trace(x + " times " + y + " = " + mult1);
var min = 35;
var max = 239;
var addition = min + max;
trace(min + " plus " + max + " = " + addition;
You get the idea. Try all the operators and start writing your own scripts.

Equality, Relational and Logical Operators

These operators evaluate to true or false

Logical AND (&&)

Evaluates to true only if both its operands evaluate to true. E.g.
x = 5;
 if(x>0 && x < 10){
something = true;

Logical OR ( || )

Evaluates to true if either of its operands evaluate to true. E.g.
x = 5;
If(x>0 || x<4){
something = true;
!Logical NOT(!hasFired)
<Less thanx < y
>Greater thanx> y
<=Less than or equal tox <= y
>=Greater than or equal tox >= 24
==Equalityif(hasFired == true)
!=InequalityIf( x != 7)
&&Logical ANDx >0 && x < 10
||Logical ORx< 0 || x > 20

Assignment Operator ( = )

The effect that an assignment has is to store a new value in the left operand's associated memory storage space e.g.
x = 7;
This statement means that the value 7 is assigned to the variable x.

Increment and decrement Operators ( ++ and -- )

The increment (++) and decrement (--) operators are a shortcut way of adding or subtracting 1 from a variable. E.g.
Prefix increment - ++c; // c = c+1
Postfix increment - c++;
The prefix form of ++ increments the value of the variable before that value is used.
stack[++top] = val;
//Is equivalent to the following 2 lines
top = top +1;
stack[top] = val;
The postfix form of ( --) decrements the value of top after that value is used.
stack[top--] = val;
//Is equivalent to :
  stack[top] = v;
 top = top -1;

Arithmetic "IF" operator

The syntactic form is:
Expression1 ? expr2 : expr3 ;
If expression1 evaluates to a true condition, then expression2 is evaluated, otherwise expression3 is evaluated. E.g. 
x = 2;
y = 5;
max = x<y ?  100 : 10;

Bitwise Operators

Bitwise operators operate on the value to base 2 (binary). Operands must be integers.
Left Shift ("<<") - shifts the bits of the left operand some number of positions to the left. e.g. 
someNum = 1; 
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

SomeNum = someNum<<1;
0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0

SomeNum = someNum<<2;
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0

Right Shift (">>")
SomeNum = someNum >>3;
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
The leftShift operator inserts "0" from the right.
The Right Shift operator inserts "0" from the left.

Variables (AS 2.0)

A variable is identified by a user-supplied name. Each variable is of a particular data type. E.g.
Var num:Number;
"Number" is a type specifier. A declaration can follow the template:
var variableName:DataType;
  • The use of the ":Datatype" is not strictly enforced in AS2 but I strongly recommend it.
  • A variable can be composed of letters, numbers and underscore. Upper and lower case letters are different.
  • Variables need to be initialised. I.e. given an initial value.
    var myNum:Number; //Declaration 
    myNum = 0;  //Initialisation
  • In AS 1.0, variables are not strictly typed and can change types.

DataTypes (AS 2.0 only)

Variables in AS 2.0 can be given strict datatypes such as a Number or a String or a Boolean. e.g.
var myNum:Number;
var myString:String;
var isTested:Boolean;
In AS 1.0 there is no strict datatyping. A number can become a String and vice versa. e.g. 
num = 10;
num = "Test";
Strict datatyping can capture errors.

Compiler Errrors

  1. Syntax errors - e.g. var numberOne:
  2. Spelling Mistakes - var mc:MoveiClip;
  3. DataType Errors - (AS 2.0)

var num1:Number;
var str1:String;
num1 = "Steve";
str1 = 27;

Flow control


An if statement tests a condition. If it is true, then a set of actions is executed. Otherwise, the set is ignored or bypassed. Here is a template : 
Here is an example :
var x = 23;
  trace("x is greater than 3");


If .. else allows for a kind of either .. or condition.
If expression is true then statement1 is executed. 
If expression is false then statement2 is executed.
var x = 2;
if(x > 3){
trace("condition is true");
trace("condition is false");

Switch (AS 2.0 only)

A switch statement is an alternative to complex nested if .. else statements
 case 1:
 case 2:
The variable to be evaluated is inserted into the switch argument. If the first variable's value is 1 then statement1 is evaluated. A break statement is inserted after it so that the switch statement is terminated. The default label is the condition for "everything else".
var tester:Number;
tester = random(3);
switch (tester) {
case 1 :
 trace("tester = 1");
case 2 :
 trace("tester = 2");
case 3 :
 trace("tester = 3");
default :
 trace("Out of range");


A loop cycles over a body of code as long as the condition remains true.


The statement is executed as long as the conditions is true. E.g.
var x =0;
while(x < 10){

do .. while

a do.. while loop executes the statement once before the condition is evaluated.
//Statements to be executed;
var x =0;
while (x < 10);


a for loop is used most commonly to step through a fixed length data structure such as an array.
for(init-statement; expr2;expr3){
// Statements;
for(var i=0; i<10; i++){
the first statement initialises a looping variable
3. sets the condition
3. increments the looping variable( also could be something like i=i+2)


A function is a named unit, in which statements are logically grouped. It usually contains the following parts: 
  • Function Name - e.g. function someName( )
  • Argument list - is enclosed within parentheses after the function name. It contains a comma-separated list of 0 or more arguments. Arguments are passed to the variable with the same name as the argument inside the function.
  • Return Type - the datatype of what the function can evaluate to.
  • The function Body - is enclosed within a pair of braces { } and contains a sequence of statements.
Here is a template. For AS 1.0 : 
Function functionName(arg1, arg2, arg3){
 // statements go here
 return something if not void return type;
example1 (AS 1.0). Type this and compile (Control+Enter): 
function test1(arg1, arg2){
// arg1 is passed to the variable with the same name 
// in the next line I.e. arg1
// call function
Notice that to call a function we write the function name and the argument lists in parentheses. Template to call a function:
functionName(arg1, arg2);
Example 2 with a return value (AS 1.0)
function returnTest(arg1){
 var num = arg1 * 10;
 return num;
// call function
ex. 3 
// returns the absolute value of number
 function abs(number){
return( i < 0 ? -i : i);
// call the method

ex 4
// return the smaller of two values.
function min(num1,num2){
return(num1 <= num2 ? num1: num2);

Functions in AS 2.0

Functions in AS 2.0 are a little different. AS 2.0 allows the setting of specific datatypes. Here is an example : 
Function avgReturn(arg1:Number):Number{
Var num = arg1 * 5;
return num;
The template for an AS 2.0 function could be : 
Function functionName(arg1:DataType, 
// statements go here
return something ;
Void is used to specify that there is no return type. E.g. 
function noReturn(arg1:Number, 
trace(arg2+" is a string and "+arg1+" is a number");
// call function 


An array is a collection of objects . Individual objects are not named but accessed by its position in the array. Try this!
var theArray = new Array(5,4,8,2,1);
for(var i = 0;i<5;i++){
Elements are numbered beginning with "0". 
In the above array 
theArray[0] = 5
theArray[2] = 8
Length is a property of Array. It tells how many elements are in the array. So , from above,
theArray.length = 5


(As 2.0 only)
A class is a user-defined datatype, an aggregate of named data elements, and a set of operations to manipulate that data. A class definition consists of two parts: 
  1. The class head - composed of the keyword class and a name
  2. the class body - enclosed by braces, contains the member definitions
A class name represents a new data type . e.g.
class Dog{
 // data members
 var name:String;
 var age:Number;
 // class method
 function setAge(age1:Number){
 age = age1;
Constructors allow us to create an instance of a class . e.g.
var rusty:Dog = new Dog();
// the dot operator (".") 
// allows us to access members and methods of that class.
rusty.setAge(7); = "Rusty";

Recommended Book
Essential Actionsript 2.0
by colin Moock - one of the most universally respected developers in the Flash community
Buy Now !

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